1. Self Defense Argument.
4. Patent searching
Here are some tools you may want to use when you do your patent searching . This link here at the USPTO https://www.uspto.gov/patents-application-process/search-patents has information and a video you really want to study.
ALso this link here http://www.freepatentsonline.com/search.html ... note that the keyword search is best start for new BLAW students. From the results that come up from using keywords of your class patent you will be writing, the key words can be refined - then if you get a hit or two on target, using the Class codes from those hits will get you more on point results
Shaken Baby Syndrome update
res ipsa loquitur -- the thing speaks for itself
Certiorari -- To be apprised
mens rea -- Guilty mind
actus reus -- guilty act
de facto -- In fact
de minimis -- About the smallest things
de novo -- Anew
in rem -- About a thing
per se -- by itself
pro bono -- For good
respondeat superior -- let the master answer
President Trump plans to announce his nominee for the Supreme Court tonight at the White Househttp://www.cbsnews.com/news/president-trump-supreme-court-pick-neil-gorsuch-thomas-hardiman/
Byrne v. Boadle, 2 H. & C. 722, 159 Eng. Rep. 299 (Exch. 1863).
Nearly all commentators agree that the first use of the colloquial Latin tag in the negligence context came in the 1863 case of Byrne v. Boadle, in which a Liverpool flour merchant was sued by a pedestrian who had been struck and seriously injured by a barrel plummeting from the merchant's second-story storeroom. (5) The case came before the common law Court of Exchequer on appeal, and the court's head, Chief Baron Jonathan Frederick Pollock, favoring the plaintiff despite his inability to present affirmative evidence of the defendant's negligence, observed that "[t]here are certain cases of which it may be said res ipsa loquitur, and this seems one of them." (6) In context, Pollock's choice of Latin phraseology was more a gilded bauble of his classical education at Cambridge than a conscious attempt to generate a new legalism; however, subsequent jurisprudence soon minted Pollock's words into legal coinage. (7)
Byrne (P) was struck by a barrel falling from a window as he walked past Boadle’s (D) flour shop and sustained serious personal injuries. A witness testified that he saw the barrel fall from Boadle’s window but had not seen the cause. Byrne did not present any other evidence of negligence by Boadle or his employees. Boadle moved for a nonsuit on the grounds that Byrne had presented no evidence of negligence. The court granted the motion and plaintiff obtained a rule nisi. The Court of Exchequer found in favor of Byrne and reversed. Boadle appealed.
- Can liability for negligence lie solely on account of the type of accident that occurred, without direct evidence of negligence?
Holding and Rule
- Yes. Liability for negligence can lie solely on account of the type of accident that occurred, without direct evidence of negligence.
A presumption of negligence can arise from an accident. A party need not present direct evidence of negligence when the mere manner and facts of the accident show that it could not have happened without negligence on someone’s part.
A barrel could not roll out of a warehouse window without negligence. This is an example of a case in which res ipsa loquitur (“the thing speaks for itself”) applies. It is evident that the barrel was in the custody of Boadle and its falling is prima facie evidence of negligence. A plaintiff who is injured in a such a fashion should not be required to show that the barrel could not fall without negligence. A rebuttable presumption is created that Boadle was negligent and he has the burden to prove that he was not. Boadle had a duty to ensure that those passing by his shop are not injured by objects under his control. In this case there was a scintilla of evidence with respect to negligence. The defendant failed to show that he was not negligent and Byrne is entitled to the verdict.
Judgment for Byrne affirmed.
The doctrine of res ipsa loquitur cannot be applied when there is direct evidence of the cause of the injury and facts and circumstances surrounding it.
To apply res ipsa loquitur, the following elements must be present:
- The accident must be of a type that normally would not occur in the absence of negligence.
- There was no contribution to the plaintiff’s injuries by the plaintiff or any third party.
- The source of the negligence falls within the scope of the duty owed by the defendant to the plaintiff. This usually (but not necessarily) arises where the instrument causing the injury was within the exclusive control of the defendant, or where there is an inability to identity the specific source of harm. Frequently it arises where the source of negligence lies within a group of people who are unwilling or unable to divulge the actual source.
The plaintiff must still prove all of the other elements to prove that the defendant was liable (i.e. proximate cause etc.)Note that the theory of the negligence in Summers v. Tice is similar to the concept of res ipsa loquitur. In that case the plaintiff was shot and injured by one of two other hunters. While it was certain that one of the two men caused the harm, the plaintiff could offer no proof showing which defendant was at fault. The court shifted the burden of proof to the defendants to prove their innocence. See http://www.lawnix.com/cases/byrne-boadle.html
Liebeck v. McDonald's Restaurants, also known as the McDonald's coffee case and the hot coffee lawsuit, is a 1994
The jury awarded Liebeck $200,000 in compensatory damages. This amount was reduced to $160,000 because the jury found Liebeck 20 percent at fault in the spill. The jury also awarded Liebeck $2.7 million in punitive damages, which equals about two days of McDonalds' coffee sales. Post-verdict investigation found that the temperature of coffee at the local Albuquerque McDonalds had dropped to 158 degrees fahrenheit.
The trial court subsequently reduced the punitive award to $480,000 -- or three times compensatory damages -- even though the judge called McDonalds' conduct reckless, callous and willful.
Constitutional Places: Brown v. Board of Education
Oliver BrownOliver Brown's name appears first on the most famous desegregation case in the nation’s history, Brown v. Board of Education. He was a welder for the Santa Fe Railroad and a part-time assistant pastor at St. John African Methodist Episcopal Church. Courtesy of the Brown Foundation)
Here are all of the plaintiffs from the various companion cases to Brown v. Board, and their parents. Front row: Vicki Henderson, Donald Henderson, Linda Brown, James Emanuel, Nancy Todd, Katherine Carper Back row: Zelma Henderson, Oliver Brown, Sadie Emanuel, Lucinda Todd, Lena Carper.
Thurgood MarshalMany historians and legal scholars consider the U.S. Supreme Court's 1954 decision in Brown v. Board of Education to be one of the most important and far reaching pronouncements in the history of the Court.
OThurgood MarshalNAACP chief counsel Thurgood Marshall argued the case of Brown v. Board of Education before the Supreme Court for the plaintiffs. Marshall was himself named to the Court in 1967
121 days @ 175 quarts of milk 21,175 quarts @ $3.79 = $80,253.25 in 2016 -Broad rule from this case that applies to all cases – contract begins when it is executed between the two parties. They know the risks they are taking. Once you have signed, you’ve agreed to something and you’re bound.http://www.dollartimes.com/calculators/inflation.htm